Jump to content

Royal Enfield


liquido

Recommended Posts

  • Replies 53
  • Created
  • Last Reply

Top Posters In This Topic

  • David_LivinginTalisay

    8

  • Alan S

    6

  • hyaku

    5

  • johnboy999

    4

Top Posters In This Topic

Popular Posts

only true royal enfields were built in britain .after the factory closed any bikes built since then are not true enfields but fakes .The name should have died along with the factory to perserve its pr

The owners can either license out the blueprints and that logo name or let it turn to dust and walk away from untold millions(?) generated from the emerging markets ... I hear your words on the histor

I still like Triumph

Posted Images

David_LivinginTalisay

http://www.motorcyclephilippines.com/2012/01/

 

 

 

The Bullet that Binds
POSTED BY MCPHILS ON JANUARY - 24 - 2012

The Bullet that Binds

 

“Bang!” goes the gun that shoots. “Ping!” it echoes when it ricochets, and “Klunk!” or “Thud” when it hits a target hopefully without killing anyone that yells “Argh!” But we’re not talking about a bullet that goes “Bang!” We’d rather talk about a Bullet that goes “Thump! Thump! Thump!” on and on and on like music that soothes a savage beast on two wheels.

 

image002.jpg

Let’s start where it all began. In the mid 1800’s – just about the time when our national hero was still in a diaper riding a Spanish made wooden bicycle, a man in Great Britain named George Townsend founded a company that produced and sold complete bicycles under the name “Enfield”, named after the location of the company. It was also during this war time era that they started manufacturing precision rifle parts for a company called the Royal Small Arms Factory. Through this combination location, client name and products made, it was not long before they renamed their company as “Royal Enfield” that manufactured motorcycles with a slogan trademark “Built like a gun and runs like a bullet”. Since then, the legend of the “Royal Enfield Bullet” name has grown into a worldwide sensation reaching record sales, having numerous makes & models, winning races, getting awards internationally and creating a unique & impressive motorcycle sub-culture throughout America, Europe, India, some Asian countries and in some other places I can’t pronounce.

 

image004.jpg

 

But not in the Philippines…. until now.

In January 2012, this historical “World’s Oldest Motorcycle company” icon of a bike builder will be arriving on the shores of Metro Manila (literally – cause the bikes are shipped in by boat) through the capable hands of master bike builders Hardcore Brothers Motorcycle Customs, Inc. headed by their creative and intrepid leader, Jimmy Barinaga. You may know them through their celebrity-status-making TV show, Hardcore Brothers Easyride (3 season running) or their past radio stints on NU 107 as Hardcore Brothers Motorcycle Radio or you may just know them through the grapevine of the motorcycle community because of their simply cool and pioneering custom bike building work. Most of which still roam the streets and highways of the country today.

 

image006.gifThis “hardcore” company will be the official and exclusive distributor of the Royal Enfield brand in the Philippines so if  after reading this article you feel compelled to purchase one, try your best not to tell your wife where the showroom is and we’ll see you there with your checkbook. Don’t bother looking anywhere else.

 

image010.jpg

When you get there, you’ll be pleasantly surprised by the 5 key things you will be informed of regarding the bike. I’ll give it to you now as a heads up – 500cc, 38kpl (Yup, you read it right – 38 kilometers per liter of gasoline), bullet-proof & classic. That’s all you need to know.  You don’t need to know that it’s a 4-stroke, high torque, single piston, computer controlled electronic fuel injected machine with front disk brakes, modern metallurgy, halogen light, rust proofed to the gut chassis, hand-painted tank and an overall bullet proof design. That information is really and honestly not that important – because Royal Enfield bikes are a whole new ballgame unlike anyone in this country has ever seen before.

 

image008.jpg

Owning one is not simply like buying any other bike. You buy an Enfield not to out-class your other ride buddies but rather to share with them the piece of history you have become involved with. You ride an Enfield not to outrun everyone else on the road while carving out new grooves on mountains streets with your pegs but rather to interact with everyone you meet on the road while being an icon of awe and nostalgia for all to see. Owning a Royal Enfield is not about possession or pride. It is quite simply a relationship with something magical. The kind that will see you through many happy years of riding that might even rival your marriage.

 

image012.jpg

You see, Royal Enfields are not just motorcycles. They are classically or “retro” styled time machines on two wheels. I kid you not. When you look at it, you get transported back in time simply because nothing about it say “modern” when you look at it cause all the modern technology is hidden behind that classic Brit war time façade. The bike just screams “classic”. When you start it up and hear it quietly rumble, each “Thump” you hear is a day its legacy has spent on the road with you as the new torch bearer. When you ride it, you become part of a citizenship unknown to many.  But to those who know, you are a brother (or sister).  They bring you back to drive-in movies, boogie, Jose Rizal, wooden bicycles and black and white TV.  Sounds like a dream? If it were, the technology as modern as Facebook and iPad that built that dream will ensure your dream ride goes on and on while keeping you confident, safe, happy and complying with the most stringent international emissions regulations as long as your gas tank will take you.

 

image014.jpg

And that gas tank filled, combined with the EFI will get you through 90% of the entire Luzon loop without needing to check out the local gas station in each province. You can put your butt to sleep mode as you whiz past all the scenic routes at a comfortable 100kph which the bikes will not even break a sweat on maintaining.  But if you do want some action, pushing an Enfield to its limit of about 140kph is possible but that defeats the purpose of having one in the first place so why bother? One of the most enjoyable things you can do on an Enfield is carving out the hills of our provincial roads. They stick to the pavement surprisingly well and you’ll be surprised at how nimble it can manage itself  around corners. But if you really want to push your Enfield to the limit, go where no classic bike has gone before apart from the Enfield – the Himalayas. Yes, boys & girls, that tall, icy, treacherous mountain known all over the world – the Enfield goes there and they call it the “Himalayan Odyssey”. It’s an annual gig for all Enfield owners worldwide that lasts days and weeks. There, friendships are formed at covenant levels both with other riders and to their Enfield motorcycles. It is there that the Enfield saying truly comes to life, “The Thump that binds”.  Now THAT is what I call a proper “track day”.  Beat that for reliability.

image016.jpg

So, for those who want it all – the power, fuel efficiency, reliability and drop dead gorgeous classic styling, the Royal Enfield is the “dark knight” of the motorcycle scene here in the Philippines but not because it wants to but simply because it can’t help it.

 

34 countries and over 100 years of history cannot be wrong.

 

image018.jpgimage020.jpgimage022.jpgimage024.jpgimage026.jpgimage028.jpgimage030.jpgimage032.jpg

 

Visit the Royal Enfield Philippines showroom in Makati today.

 

Royal Enfield Philippines

GF Dona Guadalupe Building, 7462 Bagtikan St., San Antonio Village, Makati City, 1203

Telefax: 8992699      Cel Number: 0932-532-7222

Email:  hardcorebrotherscustom.com

Website: royalenfieldph.weebly.com

 

 

Basic Specs of Royal Enfield Bullets & Classics

 

Engine                                     Single Cylinder, 4-Stroke,

Capacity                                  499cc

Bore and stroke                       84 x 90mm

Maximum Torque                    41.3Nm @ 4000rpm

Power                                      20.3KW, 28bhp @ 5250 rpm

Ignition system                         Electronic

Fuel Feed                               Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)

Transmission                           5-speed gearbox with left foot gear change

Petrol Tank Capacity               14.5 litres/2L reserve (21 litres Clubman)

Fuel Consumption                    79.6 mpg (Under Euro III test conditions)

Clutch                                      7-plate wet clutch

Braking System                        Front – 280mm Disc; rear – 152mm Drum

Suspension                              Telescopic front forks, Gas filled rear shocks

Dimensions                              Length – 2160mm / Width – 800mm / Height – 1050mm

Seat Height                              Bullet 820mm / Classic 790mm

Wheel Base                             1370mm

Ground Clearance                   140mm

Weight Kerb                             (with fuel) 187kg

Tyres                                       Bullet Front – 90 x 90 – 19″ /  Rear – 100 x 90 – 19″

Tyres                                       Classic Front – 90 x 90 – 18″ /  Rear – 110 x 80 x 18″

Electrics                                   12V System

Fuel                                         Unleaded Petrol

Rake/Trail                                25°/ 75mm (Bullet) // 26°/ 72mm (Classic)

 
 
Edited by David_LivinginTalisay
Link to post
Share on other sites
johnboy999

I see the confusion continues... the Sunstar article I linked (post #6) listed the showroom as being in Banilad, and the pictures advertising the Grand Opening yesterday posted by David (post #46) also list Banilad as the address. The information from the official Royal Enfield India site listed by philuk (post #10) shows EMCOR in Mandaue as being the Cebu distributor! At least the new pictures posted by David confirm that Sunstar have indeed got their facts right.

 

Although these bikes are very retro styled, they've given into the temptation to use some more modern technology which I'm sure wouldn't have been on the original 1950s bike, such as a disk brake on the front wheel and computer controlled fuel injection. I suppose anyone who is a real fan of authentic old bikes are going to be left a bit disappointed that they haven't stuck with the original principles and tech. But people who really like to get their fingers dirty and tinker about with engines, etc are not really their target audience any more, I guess.

 

Personally, I'm not going to be selling my Ninja 650 to buy one of these. I can appreciate the styling looks cool enough, but I don't buy into the argument that these Royal Enfields are, pardon the pun, "bulletproof" in construction and will outlast the Ninja. I've seen first hand that Indian build quality isn't all that great (my Ninja is much much better built than the Indian built Rouser 220 I had before, granted Bajaj and Royal Enfield are different companies so maybe it's not a fair comparison). At the prices they are charging, I would not expect to see many on the roads here either.

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites

Sorry for the ramble, you might have guessed early bikes were my passion. P.S a really good example of minor badge engineering is the Brough Superior, the hubs on this most hallowed of bikes are actually Royal Enfield items!!

 

 

 

 

Talking of Brough Superiors, my father had one and at a recent show  where they had a display of Broughs (including two of their cars), I met the secretary of the Brough owners association, (who happens to live near me) and am trying to find out if my fathers one is still around.

 

 

 

 

 

Meanwhile, here is yours truly with my father on his every day transport, a  BSA:

 

bsa.jpg

Link to post
Share on other sites

It appears the Royal Enfield is equipped with a single seat which seats about 3 less than average Cebu bike.  A tough sale. 

 

I appreciate retro and all but goodness the bikes look like a page out of WW2.  I expect to see a Spitfire in the background and the  1935 Spitfire would look more modern than the 2013 RE bike!

Edited by samatm
Link to post
Share on other sites
David_LivinginTalisay

It appears the Royal Enfield is equipped with a single seat which seats about 3 less than average Cebu bike.  A tough sale. 

 

I appreciate retro and all but goodness the bikes look like a page out of WW2.  I expect to see a Spitfire in the background and the  1935 Spitfire would look more modern than the 2013 RE bike!

 

 

54guys.jpg

 

THE TORNADOES INDIAN STUNTMEN

The Tornadoes, India's Army motorcycle stuntmen, are the only team in the world to achieve a staggering distance of 1 100 metres with 54 persons on one bike. The bike is none other than a 500cc Royal Enfield.

 

The Tornadoes set a new World Record for the number of people on a single motorcycle. This great feat took place at the Yehlanka Air Force base in Bangalore.

 

2396AG_RE_Feb_2013_newsletter_r2_18.jpg

 

 

 

  • Like 1
Link to post
Share on other sites
David_LivinginTalisay

http://royalenfieldph.weebly.com/rumbler-500.html

 

_________2218311.gif

 

The Rumbler 500 

(aka Thunderbird 500)

 

The all new Royal Enfield Thunderbird now with a powerful 500 cc engine, a 20 litre tank, digital meter console, LED tail lamps and in three striking shades of black gives a new definition to Highway cruising.

 

Perhaps one of the most anticipated models from the Royal Enfield stable, Thunderbird 500 is poised to enhance the pleasure of leisure motorcycling amongst the touring enthusiasts. Coming soon from Royal Enfield this motorcycle with its distinctive "black" styling, this motorcycle is all set to make a distinct statement on the roads.

 

Unique Features:

1. Special Matte black styling

2. Projector lens headlight

3. Forward set pegs

4. New Seat style

5. New Speedometer style with tachometer

6. New backrest 

 

 

 

 

P369,000 *

 

* Introductory Price. limited offer.

 

All Royal Enfield motorcycles come with a 3-year LTO registration, 1 year warranty on parts & service, owner's manual, exclusive access to Royal Enfield events and automatic membership to the Royal Enfield Philippines Owners Society (REAP).

 

1749303_orig.jpg?295

9326308_orig.jpg

 

 

8124751_orig.jpg 9173718_orig.jpg

 

180573_orig.jpg

5473910_orig.jpg

 

1285728_orig.jpg 6617061_orig.jpg

3292640_orig.jpg  4801823_orig.jpg

 

4889773_orig.jpg

 

1332213_orig.jpg6893895_orig.jpg

 

9808762_orig.jpg

 

9314718_orig.jpg

 

3629917_orig.jpg

 

4311031_orig.jpg

 

 

 

Specs

 

ENGINE

 

Type                              Single Cylinder, 4 stroke, Twinspark, Air cooled

Displacement              499cc

Bore x stroke              84mm x 90mm

Compression Ratio    8.5:1

Maximum Power        27.2 bhp @ 5250 rpm

Maximum Torque       41.3 Nm @ 4000 rpm

Ignition System           Digital Electronic Ignition

Clutch                         Wet, multi-plate

Gearbox                      5 Speed Constant Mesh

Lubrication                 Wet sump[/size]

Engine Oil                  15 W 50 API, SL Grade JASO MA

Fuel Supply                Keihin Electronic Fuel Injection

Air Cleaner                 Paper Element

Engine Start               Electric/Kick 

 

 

 

BRAKES & TYRES

 

Tyres Fr.                    90/90-19, 52P MRF Zapper FM

Tyres Rr.                   120/80-18, 62P MRF Zapper C

Brakes Front            280mm Disc, 2-Piston calipe

Brakes Rear              240mm Disc, Single piston caliper

 

CHASSIS

 

Type                           Single downtube, using engine as stressed member

Front suspension    Telescopic, 41mm forks, 130mm travel

Rear suspension     Twin gas charged shock absorbers, 5-step adj. preload, 80mm travel

 

 

DIMENSIONS

 

Wheelbase                1350mm

Ground Clearance   140 mm

Length                       2060mm

Width                         790mm ( Without Mirrors)

Height                       1205mm ( Without Mirrors)

Seat Height               775mm

Kerb Weight             195 Kgs

Fuel Capacity            20 Ltrs

 

 

ELECTRICALS

 

Electrical System     12 volt - DC[/size]

Battery                      12 volt, 14 Ah[/size]

Head Lamp                Projection type headlamp, H7 55 / 55 W[/size]

Tail Lamp                   LED lamp with position light guides[/size]

Turn Signal Lamp     Hazard Light[/size]

 

 

Need a review? . . . Watch this video.

http://www.youtube.com/embed/HQ-onzb3Y2U

 

Listen to how it sounds . . . watch this video.

http://www.youtube.com/embed/kNXUDZCu_hA

 

 

 

Edited by David_LivinginTalisay
Link to post
Share on other sites
David_LivinginTalisay

http://royalenfieldph.weebly.com/about.html

 

The "Thump" That Binds.

Born in England and without design compromise through more than 100 years of existence, the Royal Enfield motorcycles have retained its pre-world war beauty and charm to ride to the 21st century while picking up a few improvements. These machines are pure nostalgia on 2 wheels. 

 

Whilst keeping with the look, feel and sound of the original design first made in 1933, the Bullet  has evolved in performance and reliability. Better metal, more accurate manufacturing, electronic fuel injection and disk brakes are among the "unseen but felt" improvements to keep the bike abreast with modern technology and rider expectations. 

 

Owning a Royal Enfield is not about possession or pride. It is quite simply a relationship with something magical. The kind that will see you through many happy years of riding that might even rival your marriage. 

 

But don't take our word for it. Visit the Royal Enfield showroom today for a test ride and know for yourself what a legend feels like. Ore read up on what the current and local Enfield owners have to say about the bike. 

 

Visit & link up with us on Facebook and Motorcycle Philippines. Read up on past events, current happenings and announcements on future gigs. Join the discussions as well or just comment on some posts or pictures. Rock & Roll!  

 

[back to main page]

 

 
7157214.jpg
2415663.jpg
8973426.jpg
946448.jpg
9726637.jpg
1718488.jpg
 
History of the Royal Enfield
Royal Enfield was the name under which the Enfield Cycle Company made motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers and stationary engines. This legacy of weapons manufacture is reflected in the logo, a cannon, and their motto "Made like a gun, goes like a bullet". Use of the brand name Royal Enfield was licensed by the Crown in 1890. The original Redditch, Worcestershire based company was sold to Norton-Villiers-Triumph (NVT) in 1968. Production ceased in 1970 and the company was dissolved in 1971.

 

In 1893, the Enfield Manufacturing Company Ltd was registered to manufacture bicycles. By 1899, Enfield were producing quadricycles[disambiguation needed] with De Dion engines and experimenting with a heavy bicycle frame fitted with a Minerva engine clamped to the front downtube.[3] In 1912, the Royal Enfield Model 180 sidecar combination was introduced with a 770 cc V-twin JAP engine which was raced successfully in the Isle of Man TT and at Brooklands.

 

First World War (1911–1920)

 

1913 Enfield 425cc

 

In 1911, prior to the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Enfield added the word "Royal" to its name. They supplied large numbers of motorcycles to the British War Department and also won a motorcycle contract for the Imperial Russian Government. Enfield used its own 225 cc two-stroke single and 425 cc V-twin engines.[4] They also produced an 8 hp motorcycle sidecar model fitted with a Vickers machine gun.[2]

 

Inter-war years (1921–1939)

 

1923 Royal Enfield 225cc

 

In 1921, Enfield developed a new 976 cc twin, and in 1924 launched the first Enfield four-stroke 350 cc single using a JAP engine. In 1928, Royal Enfield began using the bulbous 'saddle' tanks and centre-spring girder front forks, one of the first companies to do so. Even though it was trading at a loss in the depression years of the 1930s, the company was able to rely on reserves to keep going. In 1931, Albert Eddie, one of the founders of the company, died and his partner R.W. Smith died soon afterwards in 1933.

 

Second World War (1939–1945)

 

During World War II, The Enfield Cycle Company was called upon by the British authorities to develop and manufacture military motorcycles. The models produced for the military were the WD/C 350 cc sidevalve, WD/CO 350 cc OHV, WD/D 250 cc SV, WD/G 350 cc OHV and WD/L 570 cc SV. One of the most well-known Enfields was the Royal Enfield WD/RE, known as the Flying Flea, a lightweight 125 cc motorcycle designed to be dropped by parachute with airborne troops.

 

In order to establish a facility not vulnerable to the wartime bombing of the Midlands, an underground factory was set up, starting in 1942, in a disused "Bath Stone" quarry at Westwood, near Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. Many staff were transferred from Redditch and an estate of "prefabs" was built in Westwood to house them.

 

Royal Enfield in Madrid, Spain

 

As well motorcycle manufacture, it built other equipment for the war effort such as mechanical "predictors" for anti-aircraft gunnery: the manufacture of such high precision equipment was helped by the constant temperature underground.

 

After the war the factory continued, concentrating on engine manufacture and high precision machining. After production of Royal Enfield motorcycles ceased, the precision engineering activities continued until the final demise of the company.

 

Postwar Model G and Model J and ex-military C and CO (1946–1954)

 

Postwar, Royal Enfield resumed production of the single cylinder ohv 350cc model G and 500cc Model J, with rigid rear frame and telescopic front forks. These were ride-to-work basic models, in a world hungry for transport. A large number of factory reconditioned ex-military sv Model C and ohv Model CO singles were also offered for sale, as they were sold off as surplus by various military services. 

 

Springframe Bullets 350cc 1949-1970

 

In 1948, a groundbreaking development in the form of rear suspension springing was developed, initially for competition model "trials" models (modern enduro type machines), but this was soon offered on the roadgoing Model Bullet 350cc, a single cylinder ohv. This was a very popular seller, offering a comfortable ride. A 500cc version appeared shortly after. A later 1950s version of the Bullet manufacturing rights and jigs, dies and tools was sold to India for manufacture there, and where developed versions continue to this day. 

 

500 Twins, Meteors, Super Meteors and Constellations 1949-1963

 

In 1949, Royal Enfields version of the now popular selling parallel twins appeared. This 500cc version was the forerunner of a range of Royal Enfield Meteors, 700cc Super Meteors and 700cc Constellations. Offering good performance at modest cost, these sold widely, if somewhat quietly in reputation. The 700cc Royal Enfield Constellation Twin has been described as the first Superbike. 

 

250 cc models

 

Royal Enfield Crusader

 

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Royal Enfield produced a number of 250 cc machines. The biggest-selling of these was the Royal Enfield Crusader, a 248 cc pushrod OHV single producing 18 bhp (13 kW). In 1965, a 21 bhp (16 kW) variant called the GT Continental, with GRP tank, five-speed gearbox (which was also an option on the Crusader), clip-on handlebars and rearset footrests, was launched. It sold well with its "cafe racer" looks. Other variants were the 250 "Turbo Twin", fitted with the Villiers 247 cc twin two-stroke engine. An oddity was the 250 Super 5, mainly notable for its use of leading -link front suspension (all the other 250 models had conventional telescopic forks).

 

Royal Enfield Interceptor

 

 During the onslaught of the better engineered Japanese motorcycle manufacturers in the late sixties and early seventies, the English factories made a final attempt with the 1962–1968 [7] series I and Series II. Made largely for the US market, it sported lots of chrome and strong performance, completing the quarter mile in less than 13 seconds at speeds well above 175 km/h (105 mph).[8] It became very popular in the US, but the classic mistake of not being able to supply this demand added to the demise of this last English-made Royal Enfield.

 

The Redditch factory ceased production in 1967 and the Bradford-on-Avon factory closed in 1970, which meant the end of the British Royal Enfield. After the factory closed a little over two hundred Series II Interceptor engines were stranded at the dock in 1970. These engines had been on their way to Floyd Clymer in the US, who unfortunately had just died. His export agents, Mitchell's of Birmingham, were left to dispose of them. They approached the Rickman brothers for a frame. The main problem of the Rickman brothers had always been engine supplies, so a limited run of Rickman Interceptors were promptly built.

 

As far as the motorcycle brand goes, though, it would appear that Royal Enfield is the only motorcycle brand to span three centuries, and still going, with continuous production. A few of the original Redditch factory buildings remain (2009) and are part of the Enfield Industrial Estate.

 

Enfield Indians

 

From 1955 to 1959, Royal Enfields were painted red, and marketed in the USA as Indian Motorcycles by the Brockhouse Corporation, who had control of the Indian Sales Corporation (and therefore Indian Motorcycles) and had stopped manufacturing all American Indians in the Springfield factory in 1953. But Americans were not impressed by the badge engineering and the marketing agreement ended in 1960, and from 1961, Royal Enfields were available in the US under their own name. The largest Enfield "Indian" was a 700 cc twin named the Chief, like its American predecessors.

 

Enfield India (1949–present)

 

Royal Enfield motorcycles had been sold in India from 1949. In 1955, the Indian government looked for a suitable motorcycle for its police and army, for use patrolling the country's border. The Bullet was chosen as the most suitable bike for the job. The Indian government ordered 800 350 cc model Bullets, an enormous order for the time. In 1955, the Redditch company partnered Madras Motors in India in forming 'Enfield India' to assemble, under license, the 350cc Royal Enfield Bullet motorcycle in Madras (now called Chennai). Under Indian law, Madras Motors owned the majority (over 50%) of shares in the company. In 1957 tooling equipment was sold to Enfield India so that they could manufacture components.

 

Royal Enfield India is still manufacturing in India and is being sold in India and is also being exported to Europe as well as America and Australia. Recently Royal Enfield has undergone a major retooling particularly in the engine department with introduction of twin spark unit construction engine on all its models with EFI available on their flagship 500cc model. This retooling has sparked such an interest in these bikes that they have started double shifts at the plants. They have been making the same bike in 1955, 1966, 1976, 1986, and 2006! The demand for this great old motorcycle has never stopped. Every year they have produced over 30,000 motorcycles, all a 1955 Bullet.

 

The Bullet is made today in the same manner it was in 1955. However over the years improved metallurgy, modern machining methods and the passage of time has produced stronger, more durable parts, making the Bullet superior, in some ways to the same bike made in 1955.

 

Today you can get a Bullet that is extremely reliable, robust, resilient, economical to run, easy to maintain, powerful & comfortable to ride  and STILL retains that classic look loved for generations. 

 

[back to main page] 

 

Link to post
Share on other sites
Guest
This topic is now closed to further replies.

×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Guidelines. We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settings, otherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue..