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5 minutes ago, Cgu said:

Yes, I do not mean that. I talked today to a friend of mine, he is a doctor in a hospital ( dot ask me the name of it...I forgot:mellow:) in the state MD. I asked him about testing and how they report. He told me that they have quite an increase but test results are not put into any "national DB", but their own patient DB. When these resuls are extracted and aggregated he cannot say. Per example Spain or Italy of course have a national health care system with one IT system, so there data are nearly instant, but that is a different story..

Seriously there is no way to instantly report into a national database from every level of medical containment at our disposal.  Where would you start?  The hospital/doc office? County? state?    They are making the changes needed as they go on.  

I think they are doing as well as possible and for sure not everything is going into the system since this is pretty much of a first for all of us.  

As time goes on I think they will be able to adjust better, and numbers will become a little more accurate and up to date, but right now there's enough hit and miss to go around.  

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New Zealand locked down hard. https://www.zerohedge.com/covid-19/new-zealand-extends-snap-lockdown-covid-spreads-capital Comments following articles on Zerohedge are not moderated except for

This is a follow up to a Post I made regarding my nephew and Partner and child that had covide. He has improved that no oxygen is needed now but it did fall to 90% at one point...The child was on

You act like this is something new...  Talk about what's going on anywhere you like as long as you leave politics out of it. There are thousands of posts on the pandemic that have managed to

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 Comparison update from yesterday to now

467,537 total

21,175 deaths

113,808 recoveries

The coronavirus COVID-19 is affecting 198 countries and territories around the world and 1 international conveyance (the Diamond Princess cruise ship harbored in Yokohama, Japan). 


Latest Updates

March 25 (GMT)

WHO Press Briefing:

"We understand that countries are trying to assess when and how they will be able to ease these measures.

The answer depends on what countries do while these population-wide measures are in place.

Asking people to stay at home and shutting down population movement is buying time and reducing the pressure on health systems, but on their own, these measures will not extinguish the epidemics.

The point of these actions is to enable the more precise and targeted measures that are needed to stop transmission and save lives. We call on all countries that have introduced so-called "lockdown" measures to use this time to attack the virus. You have created a second window of opportunity. The question is: how will you use it? There are 6 key actions that we recommend:

1. expand, train, and deploy your health care and public health workforce

2. implement a system to find every suspected case at the community level

3. rump up production capacity and availability of testing

4. identify, adapt, and equipt facilities you will use to treat patients

5. develop a clear plan and process to quarantine contacts

6. refocus the whole of government on suppressing and controlling COVID-19

These measures are the best way to suppress and stop transmission so that when restrictions are lifted, the virus doesn't resurge.

The last thing any country needs is to reopen schools and businesses only to be forced to close them again because of a resurgence" 

Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO, March 25, 2020 [video]

1 new case in Belize: the mother of the first confirmed case (a 38-year-old female Belizean national who resides in San Pedro) [source]

7 new cases in Nigeria [source]

218 new cases and 2 new deaths in Norway [source]

617 new cases and 10 new deaths in Canada [source] [source] [source]

114 new cases and 3 new deaths in Australia. Deaths:  2 Victorian men in their 70s and a 69-year old man who had contracted the disease on board of the Royal Caribbean cruise ship [source] [source] [source]

112 new cases and 5 new deaths in Romania: a 72-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man [source] [source]

7 new cases in Côte d'Ivoire [source]

 First 2 cases in the British Virgin Islands: a 56-year-old male resident who traveled from Europe on March 15 and a 32-year-old male resident who traveled recently from New York [source]

 First 2 cases in Saint Kitts and Nevis: a 57-year-old female and a 21-year-old male both Kittitian nationals with recent travel history to New York [source]

1 new case in Bermuda [source]

150 new cases and 4 new deaths in Poland: a 41-year-old, a 71-year-old man who had underlying health issues and an 80-year-old man who had comorbidities

8 new cases in Bosnia and Herzegovina [source]

 7457 new cases and 656 new deaths in Spain [source] [source]

40 new cases and 2 new deaths in Ghana [source]

11 new cases and 1 new death in the State of Palestine, a 60-year-old woman [source]

10 new cases in Channel Islands [source] [source]

21 new cases in San Marino [source]

43 new cases and 2 new deaths in Ukraine [source]

561 new cases and 15 new deaths in Turkey [source] [source]

227 new cases and 22 new deaths in Sweden [source]

9 new cases in Martinique [source]

3 new cases in Saint Martin [source]

5 new cases in French Guiana [source]

121 new cases and 2 new deaths in India [source]

235 new cases and 2 new deaths in Ireland [source]

3 new cases in Eritrea [source]

186 new cases and 11 new deaths in Brazil [source]

 1452 new cases and 43 new deaths in the United Kingdom. Deaths include a 21-year-old woman and a 47-year-old man with no pre-existing health conditions [source] [source] [source] [source] [source]

2 new cases in the Cayman Islands [source]

32 new cases in Burkina Faso [source]

8 new cases in Monaco [source]

1 new case in Haiti [source]

1 new case in Rwanda [source]

35 new cases and 1 new death in Estonia, the first in the country an 83-year-old woman [source]

9 new cases in Kazakhstan [source]

91 new cases and 1 new death in Pakistan [source]

15 new cases and 2 new deaths in Lebanon [source]

54 new cases and 1 new death in Egypt [source]

9 new cases in Cameroon [source]

4332 new cases and 47 new deaths in Germany [source]

24 new cases in Costa Rica [source] [source]

92 new cases and 1 new death in Colombia [source] [source]

65 new cases and 2 new deaths in Lithuania [source] [source]

439 new cases and 2 new deaths in Israel [source]

5 new cases in Georgia [source]

 2929 new cases and 231 new deaths in France [source] [source]

133 new cases and 2 new deaths in Denmark [source]

163 new cases and 2 new deaths in Russia [source]

3 new cases in Guatemala [source]

114 new cases and 2 new deaths in Japan [source]

4 new cases in Syria [source]

10 new cases in Uzbekistan [source] [source]

64 new cases and 2 new deaths in Peru,a 74-year-old Mexican national and a 94-year-old man. Both had underlying conditions  [source]

27 new cases and 1 new death in Bahrain, a 78-year-old male with underlying and chronic health problems [source] [source]

1020 new cases and 31 new deaths in Switzerland [source]

55 new cases and 1 new death in Morocco [source]

18 new cases in Jordan [source]

11 new cases in Qatar [source]

5210 new cases and 683 new deaths in Italy. 4th day in a row with daily new cases below the 6557 peak reached on March 21. Protezione Civile chief Borrelli, the person usually holding the daily press conference, is at home with a fever, while the former chief Bertolaso is now hospitalized in Milan after having tested positive to the virus

During the press conference, Protezione Civile officials were asked to clarify what the "change in active cases" ("incremento delle persone attualmente positive") really represents, after our website had raised the issue of Italian media reporting the change in active cases (a lower number) rather than the change in total cases (a higher number), incorrectly representing it as "newly infected" when, in fact, it represents the "change in active cases"

Newly infected, meaning the number of people who have tested positive to the virus in the last day, corresponds to the number Worldometer has always reported, which is the change in total cases in accordance with the international standards set by the WHO and followed by all countries. An important figure which can be compared to newly recovered, as we do in our charts.

The change in active cases (what most Italian media incorrectly label as "newly infected") is the result of the following formula: (newly infected) - (new deaths) - (new recoveries).

Sharing the goal of providing the correct interpretation of data, we are pleased to notice that a few days ago, one of the leading Italian newspapers, Corriere della Sera, began reporting the figures correctly [source] [source]

260 new cases and 3 new deaths in Czechia: 2 men with underlying health issues  [source] [source]

1 new case in Sint Maarten [source]

78 new cases and 2 new deaths in Greece [source]

8 new cases in Cyprus [source]

38 new cases and 2 new deaths in Algeria [source]

60 new cases in Croatia [source]

1 new case in Greenland [source]

29 new cases and 1 new death in the Republic of North Macedonia, a 66-year-old patient from Debar  [source] [source]

172 new cases and 4 new deaths in Malaysia, including a 66-year-old person who had suffered a chronic illness

The government has decided to extend the movement control order (MCO) for another 2 weeks until April 14. "The trend is expected to continue for a while before we can see the number of new cases decline," said the Prime Minister [source] [source] [source] [source]

10 new cases and 1 new death in Afghanistan [source]

59 new cases and 1 new death in Tunisia [source]

3 new cases in Kenya [source]

3 new cases in Trinidad and Tobago [source]

24 new cases in Moldova [source]

2 new deaths in Panama [source]

11 new cases in Gibraltar [source]

91 new cases and 1 new death in Ecuador [source]

2 new cases in Mozambique [source]

24 new cases in Bulgaria [source]

234 new cases in Luxembourg [source]

9 new cases in Cuba [source]

5 new cases in Cambodia [source]

1 new case in Suriname [source]

6 new cases and 1 new death in Azerbaijan [source]

73 new cases in Singapore [source]

17 new cases in Réunion [source]

2 new deaths in Argentina: a 77-year-old woman [source]

220 new cases and 1 new death in Chile: an 82-year-old person with underlying health issues [source] [source]

80 new cases and 4 new deaths in the Dominican Republic [source]

81 new cases and 1 new death in Serbia: a 60-year-old woman who had untreated diabetes [source]

305 new cases and 2 new deaths in Austria [source] [source]

 852 new cases and 80 new deaths in the Netherlands [source]

30 new cases and 2 new deaths in Iraq [source]

1 new case in Nepal [source]

85 new cases in the United Arab Emirates [source]

88 new cases and 2 new deaths in Finland [source] [source]

89 new cases in Iceland [source]

133 new cases and 1 new death in Saudi Arabia [source] [source]

24 new cases in Andorra [source]

633 new cases and 10 new deaths in Portugal [source]

7 new cases in Vietnam [source]

3 new cases in the DR Congo [source]

1 new case in Cabo Verde [source]

8 new cases in Djibouti [source]

155 new cases in South Africa [source]

1 new case in Laos [source]

3 new cases in Togo [source]

19 new cases in Malta [source]

48 new cases and 1 new death in Slovenia [source]

 UK: Prince Charles tests positive for coronavirus  [source]

5 new cases in Uganda [source]

 668 new cases and 56 new deaths in Belgium [source]

9 new cases in Zambia [source]

13 new cases in Senegal [source]

 2206 new cases and 143 new deaths in Iran [source]

23 new cases in Albania [source]

23 new cases in China, Hong Kong SAR [source]

5 new cases in Brunei Darussalam [source]

2 new cases in Kyrgyzstan: 1 man in his 60s had returned from the UAE and 1 man in his 30s had traveled to Spain [source]

1 new case in China, Macao SAR: a 52-year-old man who had traveled to San Francisco [source]

104 new cases and 3 new deaths in Indonesia [source]

5 new cases in Belarus [source]

12 new cases in Slovakia [source]

4 new cases in New Caledonia [source]

24 new cases in Latvia [source]

4 new cases in Kuwait [source]

84 new cases and 3 new deaths in the Philippines [source]

4 new cases and 1 new death in Niger: 1st death, a 63-year-old person [source]

10 new cases in Faeroe Islands [source]

6 new cases in Mauritius [source]

107 new cases in Thailand. 4th day in a row with 100 or more new cases. The virus has spread across 46 out of 76 provinces (60%) [source]

19 new cases in Taiwan [source]

15 new cases in Oman [source]

5 new cases in Montenegro [source]

2 new cases in Madagascar [source]

1 new death in Bangladesh. Death of a 65-year-old man with diabetes and hypertension who tested positive on March 18 and died this morning, March 25 [source] [source]

38 new cases and 1 new death in Mexico. Death of a 61-year-old woman with diabetes and multiple myeloma who had returned from Spain on March 17, developed symptoms on March 18, and died on March 23 [source] [source] [source]

16 new cases in Armenia [source]

39 new cases and 1 new death in Hungary,  the 37-year-old deputy head of mission at the British embassy in Budapest  [source] [source]

1 new case in Fiji [source]

4 new cases in El Salvador [source]

10688 new cases and 149 new deaths in the United States. Total cases top 60,000 [sources]

6 new cases in Honduras [source]

10 new cases and 1 new death in Paraguay [source]

4 new cases in Jamaica [source]

7 new cases in Venezuela [source]

3 new cases in Bolivia [source]

100 new cases and 6 new deaths in South Korea [source]

47 new cases, 4 new deaths, and 491 new discharges occurred in China on March 24, as reported by the National Health Commission (NHC) of China [source] 


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2000 food packs arrived in Masbate port yesterday. If you look at the DSWD Facebook pages (Region v for us), food packs have been arriving all over. 

The population of Masbate is over 800,000. Conservatively that’s 150,000 households. 2000 food packs is hopefully just the start of that initiative. I’m thinking they’ll need 20,000 plus at least!

With help from some really generous (ex) work colleagues in Canada, we’ve been doing our own. 78 bags distributed so far in the village. 




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Saw on the news they were complaining the food packs handed out were inedible, spoiled or whatever.  That was in Manila.

At Christmas we buy a sack of rice and cases of sardines to hand out.  I'm thinking maybe we will do that again this week.

Edited by SkyMan
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1 minute ago, SkyMan said:

Saw on the news they were complaining the food packs handed out were inedible, spoiled or whatever.

At Christmas we buy a sack of rice and cases of sardines to hand out.  I'm thinking maybe we will do that again this week.

Here’s our content...


Bought at a wholesaler for around 250pesos per bag. 
I sack of rice does 20-25 bags. 

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17 hours ago, Soupeod said:


MANILA - Ormoc City has recently closed its borders and temporarily stopped receiving patients with respiratory diseases from neighboring areas to curb the possible entry of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) carrier, Mayor Richard Gomez said Tuesday.

The city had to fortify its defenses as the local government has no way of knowing who is a carrier of the virus, Gomez said in an interview on ANC.

"We have one person who died 5 days ago. We sent swabbing materials but up to now there are still no results," Gomez said.

The city has 66 patients under investigation and 1,812 persons under monitoring, he said.

"We're actually kinda scared because we don't know who are the affected ones. As to who really is sick or affected with COVID-19, we really have no idea," he said.

(Cont via the link above)


So approx 2000 who would/should be tested - no test kits - and one swab sent to Manila presumably to check on what he/she died of... not good.

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Salty Dog

Why Covid-19 is worse than the flu, in one chart

It’s more contagious, more deadly (particularly for older people), and it has a greater potential to overwhelm our health care system.

By Brian Resnick and Christina Animashaun  Mar 18, 2020

A question we keep hearing about the Covid-19 pandemic: Isn’t this disease a lot like the flu?

A quick unambiguous answer: No, this is not like the seasonal flu. It is worse.

Yes, some of the symptoms of Covid-19 resemble flu — especially fever and coughs. But this virus is worse for the destruction it may cause, not only in human lives, but to our society.


This is not to downplay the flu; that disease is still an annual blight we could be even more proactive about fighting (annual flu shots are important!). And it’s still true that tens of thousands of people die from the flu each year in the US.

But also, keep in mind: That’s in a given year. Covid-19 hasn’t been around a year — or even half a year. Before January, this virus was not known to science, at all. It’s just getting started. And while there is still a lot of uncertainty over this virus, and how it will play out, from what we know so far, this is a threat to take extremely seriously.

All the reasons Covid-19 is worse than the flu

While the exact death rate is not yet clear, the evidence so far does show the disease kills a larger proportion of people than the flu (and it’s particularly lethal for people older than 80).

It also has a higher potential to overwhelm our health care system and hurt people with other illnesses.

Currently, there is no vaccine to combat it, nor any approved therapeutics to slow the course of its toll on the human body. (Doctors can treat cytokine storm syndrome, an immune response that may in some cases be dealing the fatal blow to those dying of Covid-19.)

Sober-minded epidemiologists say that 20 to 60 percent of the world’s adult population could end up catching this virus.

Biologically, it behaves differently than the flu. It takes one to 14 days for people with Covid-19 infection to develop symptoms (five days is the median). For the flu, it’s around two days. That potentially gives people more time to spread the illness asymptomatically before they know they are sick.

Around the country, health care providers are worried about their facilities being overrun with an influx of patients, and having to ration lifesaving medical supplies. Some flu seasons are worse than others — but facilities are anticipating flu cases, and prepare for them. Many hospitals, as Vox’s Dylan Scott has reported, and struggling in their preparations for Covid-19.

Four or so months ago, this virus is believed to have made the leap from animals to humans for the very first time. No human immune system had seen it before November, so no human had any natural immunity to it. That means it’s more contagious than the flu — about twice as contagious, perhaps more; the numbers are still being worked out.

The threat of it causing massive outbreaks that overwhelm health systems around the world is serious. It’s bad enough to roil our stock markets, put people out of work, and potentially cause a recession. It could potentially kill millions, both here and abroad.

It’s possible that Covid-19 will become endemic — meaning it will be a disease that regularly attacks humans and will not go away until there’s a treatment or a vaccine.

Again: Yes, flu variants kill tens of thousands of people a year in the US. But imagine if there was another kind of flu, “except potentially with a higher case fatality rate,” Angela Rasmussen, a Columbia University virologist, told me recently. “Which is definitely a problem because the seasonal flu kills 30,000 to 60,000 Americans every year. And even if it’s the same case fatality rate of seasonal flu, that still presents a substantial public health burden.”

We do not want this to happen.



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hmmm big problem in this particular Barangay - they never get what they should - goes to the Barangay, the people who work there and their families first... awful - especially the Yolanda money.

Doesn't affect me directly but not sure how it can be rectified - all afraid to speak out here.

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You can't make this shit up...


Makati hospital berates Sen. Pimentel for violating quarantine protocols

By Xave Gregorio

Metro Manila (CNN Philippines, March 25) — Makati Medical Center on Wednesday castigated Senator Aquilino "Koko" Pimentel III, who tested positive for COVID-19, for visiting the hospital despite strict home quarantine protocols.

The hospital management in a statement denounced Pimentel — who accompanied his pregnant wife to the hospital — for unduly exposing health care workers to COVID-19. It said the former Senate President added to the "burden" of the medical staff responding to the coronavirus disease outbreak.

“He violated his home quarantine, exposed health workers to possible infection, and therefore, to me, that is reckless and unacceptable,” Makati Medical Center Medical Director Saturnino Javier told CNN Philippines’ News Night.

After several senators voluntary placed themselves on self-quarantine following interaction with a resource person who later tested positive for COVID-19, Pimentel said he hardly left his house since March 11 — but admitted to attending two birthday parties, a meeting, and a Senate session.

He admitted that during his quarantine, he experienced high fever, slight sore throat, body pains, and diarrhea — all flu-like symptoms related to COVID-19 — prior to his test.

Pimentel had himself tested for the virus on March 20. He said he learned about the positive results while he was at the hospital with his wife Kathryna on March 24. He said he immediately informed her doctor and left the hospital.

Javier said, if the senator was not yet aware of his test result, he should have taken extra precaution, considering his colleague Senate Majority Leader Juan Miguel “Migz” Zubiri tested positive for COVID-19.

“If you have a colleague who is positive, all the more you should be extra careful and you should consider yourself to have the infection,” Javier said.

Pimentel apologized for accompanying his wife Kathryna, who was about to give birth, effectively breaching infection control protocols at the Makati Medical Center.

For Pimentel, however, his trip to the hospital was “essential.”

“Yung quarantine kasi for non-essential movement. From my point of view, manganganak ‘yung misis ko. Sinong kasama yung misis mo? Eh ‘di ikaw,” he said.

[Translation: Quarantine is for non-essential movement. From my point of view, my wife was about to give birth. Who would accompany your wife in that case? Of course, it’s you.]

Javier said two to three of Makati Med's personnel are now on quarantine, while their delivery room complex had to be disinfected after the couple entered the delivery room complex where Kathryna was examined.

Pimentel’s wife earlier denied rumors that her husband entered the delivery room.

She added that she herself did not enter the delivery room as she was required to get a swab test first before giving birth.


Javier and the hospital did not say whether or not they will be filing charges against Pimentel.

But for University of the Philippines law professor John Molo, Pimentel can face a string of charges and penalties.

Among the possible penalties are disbarment and suspension or expulsion from the Senate for unparliamentary behavior.

Molo said Pimentel may also be fined up to ₱50,000 or face a jail term of one to six months for failing to disclose that he is suspected of having COVID-19.

For violating the enhanced community quarantine, Molo said Pimentel can be fined between ₱10,000 and ₱50,000 or jailed for up to a year.

Molo added that Pimentel could also be sued for criminal negligence, disobedience to agents of a person in authority, graft and corruption and for damages.

Justice Secretary Menardo Guevarra said they “will temper the rigor of the law with human compassion” as people are prone to commit violations “during abnormal times like these.”

“But this is not to say that the DOJ (Department of Justice) will not act upon the filing of a proper complaint by any interested party,” Guevarra said.

He added that they will determine if the National Bureau of Investigation should probe the incident.

CNN Philippines Justice Correspondent Anjo Alimario contributed to this report.


Since this article, it has come out that his wife had also tested positive and they had been turned away from the first hospital they went to (when the hospital realized both were infected) before they went to Makati Medical Center for delivery. They withheld the information in order to get her into the delivery room at Makati Medical Center. The doctors and nurses at Makati Medical Center say he was in the delivery room with his wife. I think the senator and his wife are in deep doo doo.

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2 hours ago, Salty Dog said:


Is even worse, the CFR is16% as of today - it is calculated incorrect. It might go down, but as now 117 recovered and 22k died. A lot of report this number wrong.

A CFR can only be considered final when all the cases have been resolved (either died or recovered). The preliminary CFR, for example, during the course of an outbreak with a high daily increase and long resolution time would be substantially lower than the final CFR.

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2 hours ago, Headshot said:


Well the only drug currently approved to my knowledge for covid-19 is favipiravir in Japan . Others are only in trial stage.

And of course I would take only by doctors order.

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On 3/22/2020 at 11:12 AM, Headshot said:

The Spanish Flu is NOT the same as the influenza viruses we have in the world. Nor are any existing flu strains related to it. Spanish Flu killed between 50 and 100 million people over three years and then disappeared after it saturated the world population. The Spanish Flu virus has now been isolated from samples taken from people that were buried in permafrost in Alaska, and it is not similar to any other known influenza virus. So, NO. It is NOT still killing people today.

Since I asked for your source and you didn't give it, I found a source you may have used. 


Did you use an old source for your information? This was written in 2007, two years before the 2009 outbreak.  

Like I said in my previous post, influenza has three types that affect humans: A, B, and C. The 1918 Spanish Flu was caused by type A, H1N1. The 2009 influenza outbreak was also caused by type A, H1N1. 

You claim that there are no existing influenza strains related to the 1918 outbreak and "it is not similar to any other known influenza virus". If you were presented with facts about this virus, would you change your mind or would you still hold onto your belief?  

Let's see what Jeffery Taubenberger, a virus expert at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, says. He holds a PhD and was the first man who isolated the full 1918 pandemic virus in 1997 and then later sequenced it. He was the one who traveled to Alaska and dug up the woman that you mentioned in your post. He wrote an article in a peer-reviewed journal (The New England Journal of Medicine) called "The Persistent Legacy of the 1918 Influenza Virus." This man should be able to tell us what the current status of the 1918 virus strain. 

I will add excerpts from his journal article:


"It is not generally appreciated that descendents of the H1N1 influenza A virus that caused the catastrophic and historic pandemic of 1918–1919 have persisted in humans for more than 90 years and have continued to contribute their genes to new viruses, causing new pandemics, epidemics, and epizootics"

"The 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus represents yet another genetic product in the still-growing family tree of this remarkable 1918 virus."

"think of influenza viruses not as distinct entities but as eight-member “gene teams” that work together"

"It is remarkable not only that direct “all-eight-gene” descendants of the 1918 virus still circulate in humans as epidemic H1N1 viruses and in swine as epizootic H1N1 viruses, but also that for the past 50 years the original virus and its progeny have continually donated genes to new viruses to cause new pandemics, epidemics, and epizootics. The novel H1N1 virus associated with the ongoing 2009 pandemic is a fourth-generation descendant of the 1918 virus."

"has created a “pandemic era” lasting for 91 years and counting. There is little evidence that this era is about to come to an end."


And here is another peer-reviewed journal article from two doctors. 


"It remains uncertain how forcefully S-OIV will emerge and compete against the currently circulating 1918-derived seasonal H1N1 viruses. The 2009 lineage carries three gene segments that share a common (albeit remote) descent from the 1918 virus with the human seasonal virus"


So, YES. It is STILL killing people today. It has rearranged itself to survive and the 2009 swine flu virus is directly related to the 1918 virus and it still has some of its original genes (it looks like is dropped a few genes and picked up a few more from other viruses). Here is a diagram from that first journal article. You can see that they thought it went extinct in 1957, but it popped up again in Russia in 1977 and then in Mexico in 2009. Since 2009, it has caused small outbreaks in India, Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan, Malta, Morocco, Iran, and India. 


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