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Comparison update from yesterday to now

118,926 total

4,292 deaths

66,576 recoveries

The coronavirus COVID-19 is affecting 119 countries and territories around the world and 1 international conveyance (the Diamond Princess cruise ship harbored in Yokohama, Japan).


Latest Updates


March 10 (GMT):


 UK Health minister Nadine Dorries tests positive to coronavirus [source]

2 new cases in Argentina (Buenos Aires): both imported [source]

1 new case in Martinique: a 51-year-old woman from the commune of Trinité [source]

2 new cases in Bulgaria: a 66-year-old woman and a 77-year-old man in Sofia, who worked for Ilientsi, now hospitalized at the metropolitan Pirogov Hospital [source]

17 new cases in Canada, bringing the total to 94: 39 cases in B.C., 36 cases in Ontario, 14 in Alberta, and 4 in Quebec. Air Canada suspended all flights to and from Italy. New cases include:
- 7 new cases in B.C. [source]
- 7 new cases in Alberta, all involving people who were travelling in either France, the Netherlands, Egypt, Iran, Taiwan, Germany, Malaysia, Trinidad and Tobago, Panama, Philippines and the United States [source] [source]

2 new cases in Lithuania [source]

 1st case in Turkey: a male Turkish citizen with recent travel history to Europe, now in isolation with mild semptoms [source]

United States new cases include:
- 5 new cases, including 1 death in South Dakota (Pennington County): a man in his 60s and with underlying health problems [source]
- 3 new cases in  Tennessee: 2 in Middle Tennessee, 1 in Sullivan County (East Tennessee)  [source]
- 2 new cases in Louisiana, all in the New Orleans area [source]
- 3 cases in Texas in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, all in same family: a man in his 30s, his wife, and their 3-year-old child (one of the family’s 4 children) [source]
- 1 new case in Oregon [source]
- 74 new cases and 2 new deaths in Washington state
- 8 new cases in Illinois [source]
- 51 new cases in Massachusetts [source]
- 5 new cases in Iowa [source]
- 1 new case in Minnesota (Anoka County) [source]
- 1 new case in Virginia (Loudoun County) [source]
- 1 new death in Washington (King County): a resident of the Life Care Center [source]
- 6 new cases in California (Santa Clara County) [source]
- 1 new case in Maryland (Prince George’s County) [source]
- 1 new case in Florida (Volusia County) [source]
- 2 new cases in Kentucky [source]
- 1 in Oklahoma: a woman in her 20's in Tulsa [source]

 341 new cases in Germany [source]

51 new cases in Austria [source]

20 new cases in Australia [source]

372 new cases and 3 new deaths in France. "We are at the very beginning of the epidemic", announces Emmanuel Macron. All matches in the French Ligue 1 and Ligue 2 football championships will be held behind closed doors until April 15 [source] [source]

 977 new cases and 168 new deaths in Italy*, bringing total cases to over 10,000 [source]
* The data are partial because some labs in the most affected regions have yet to communicate the results

11 new cases in the Republic of San Marino [source]

1st case in Jamaica: a woman who had returned from the UK on March 4 [source]

3 new cases in Vietnam

1st case in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a foreign national who had visited Belgium. The person was apparently in good health but was screened upon entering the country [source]

 1st death in New Jersey (United States): a man in his 60s [source]

- Comparing case progression from day 1 in Hubei, Italy, Germany and France
- Daily totals in Germany and Italy

1 new case in Paraguay: an 83-year-old man who entered the country from Argentina [source]

172 new cases in Denmark [source]

2 new cases in Luxembourg [source]

United States: 4,856 coronavirus tests have been run in public health labs, said CDC Director Dr. Robert Redfield. “We've got a new reporting system that has CDC, public health labs. We're going to get direct dumps from LabCorp and Quest so people are going to see all the tests done, where they are done. We will have a surveillance system that does that” Redfield said [source]

1 new case in Tunisia [source], while one of the current cases left, on Monday evening, the Tunisian territory in direction of the city of Strasbourg in France, thus causing a state of panic at the Tunis-Carthage airport [source]

First case in Jersey, second in the Channel Islands [source]

 464 new cases and 6 new deaths in Spain. Government prohibits direct flights from Italy to Spain. Congress suspends parliamentary activity one week [source] [source]

4 new cases in Chile [full list]

95 new cases in Sweden [source]. First patient in intensive care reported [source]

4 new cases in Costa Rica, including 2 children [source]

4 new cases in Poland [source] including the General commander of the Polish army [source]

Portugal: 100,000 inhabitants placed in lockdown in Lousada and Felgueiras, an hour and a half by car from Vigo in northern Portugal [source]

4 new deaths in South Korea, including a woman in her 50s without underlying conditions [source]

1 new case in Croatia: a young man who had been on a ski trip to Austria [source]

1 new case in Afghanistan (northern Samangan province)

2 new cases in Moldova: two Moldovans, a man and a woman, returning from Italy [source]

1 new case in Brazil: a 60-year-old man in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre. He developed symptoms on Feb 29, after a trip to Milan, Italy between Feb 16 and 23. The patient arrived at the care unit with the mask, with cough and fever [source]

1 new case in Malta: the 16-year-old daughter of the man who tested positive for the coronavirus yesterday after returning from Trentino Alto Adige (northern Italy). The daughter had not gone to school since returning [source]

 Testing positive after being declared clear of the infection: a 31-year-old evacuee from the Diamond Princess cruise ship was first infected on Feb 18 while aboard, but later appeared to have recovered and tested negative on March 4 and 6 in Japan before returning to Hong Kong on March 7. On March 9, she was found to be still infected. Disease expert Dr Joseph Tsang Kay-yan said several reasons such as sampling error and “insufficiently sensitive” tests could have accounted for the woman’s “false negative” results in Japan. “Perhaps the swab was not done properly, or an antibody blood test was not done.” In any case she would have to be tested for a particular type of antibody 21 days after the diagnosis, before results can be conclusive that she was clear of the virus. He believes the woman was not reinfected as her antibodies upon recovering would give her immunity for a period of time [source]

2 new cases in Hong Kong

1 new case in Cambodia (third in the country): a 65-year-old British woman has tested positive for COVID-19 in Kampong Cham province [source]

8 new cases in Romania, all in Bucharest: 3 are related to the case of Gerota, 1 is contact of the first infected in Bucharest, 4 are citizens who have traveled to Israel, Germany and the United Kingdom [source]

12 new cases in Malaysia, bringing the total to 129 [source]

2 new cases in Peru: two brothers, aged 21 and 15, who have recently returned from a trip to Europe [source]

 1 new death in the UK: an 89-year old patient at the Watford General Hospital (West Hertfordshire) with underlying health conditions [source]

 First death in Morocco: an 89-year old woman in Casablanca [source]

61 new cases in the Netherlands [source]

23 new cases in the Czech Republic [source]

9 new cases in Slovenia [source]

3 new cases in Belarus [source]

2 new cases in Azerbaijan [source]

 881 new cases and 54 new deaths in Iran [source]

25 new cases in Israel [source]

4 new cases in Albania [source]

11 new cases in Iceland [source]

2 new cases in Portugal [source]

8 new cases in Indonesia [source]

5 new cases in Brazil [source]

28 new cases in Belgium [source]

1 new death in Switzerland (third in the country): an 80-year-old man in Ticino with other pathologies [source]

15 new cases in the UAE: 3 Italians, 2 Emiratis, 2 Sri Lankan, 2 Brits, 2 Indians, 1 from Germany, 1 from South Africa, 1 from Tanzania, and 1 from Iran [source]

3 new cases in Estonia including two adult Tallinners from northern Italy and France [source]

2 new cases in North Macedonia [source]

1 new case in Poland. All mass events canceled. Poland's president will not hold big election rallies due to coronavirus [source]

 1st death in Lebanon: a patient who had returned from Egypt. Also reporting 11 new cases [source]

5 new cases in Greece, four of which were in contact with the group of pilgrims from the Peloponnese who had traveled to Israel. 700 schools in the prefectures of Ilia and Achaia in Peloponnese and the island of Zakynthos are closed [source]

The Czech Republic closes all schools and events with more than 100 participants. The measure is valid until further notice [source]

2 new cases in Latvia who returned on March 7 from the Italian mountain resort Cervinia [source]

5 new cases in Finland [source]

9 new cases in India. Meanwhile, an Indian Air Force aircraft airlifted 58 Indians from Iran to Ghaziabad (about 30 km from Delhi) as the central government started evacuating hundreds of citizens stuck in the country [source]

4 new cases in Kuwait: 1 has recently traveled to Iran, 1 is an Egyptian national, contact of a previous case with travel history to Azerbaijan, 2 are Kuwaiti males who recently arrived from Egypt [source]

1 new case in Morocco: a French tourist currently hospitalized in Marrakech [source]

9 new cases in the Philippines, bringing the total to 33. Previous report was corrected by DOH [source] Only 2,000 test kits available (earlier this week, down from 4,500 previously) for a population of 109 million people [source]

1 new case in Northern Cyprus: a 65-year-old German woman on holiday, part of a group of 30 people from Balingen, Germany who was staying at a hotel in Famagusta. Statistics for Northern Cyprus (which is only recognized by Turkey) are not included in the reports by the internationally-recognized Greek Cypriot government in the island’s south [source] [source]

3 new cases in Thailand, all linked to Italy. A couple: the 46-year-old wife returned from Italy on Feb 28 and did not feel well. Her 47-year-old husband fell sick on Saturday with a high fever and body ache. The other case is a 41-year-old woman who was in close contact with a previously confirmed case who returned from Italy [source]

2 new cases in Finland:  both had traveled to northern Italy, with one of the patients having symptoms already during the return flight from Italy [source]

2 new cases in Serbia: two young women in Belgrade who have been in contact with an infected person (who is now abroad) [source]

 1st case in Panama [source]

 1st case in Mongolia: a French national who traveled to Mongolia from France through Moscow. The government has identified 42 people the patient has met with and another 120 individuals who had close contact with the person [source]

35 new cases and 1 new death in South Korea [source]

19 new cases, 17 new deaths (all in Hubei) and 1,297 new discharges occurred in China on March 9, as reported by the National Health Commission (NHC) of China. [source]


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This is a follow up to a Post I made regarding my nephew and Partner and child that had covide. He has improved that no oxygen is needed now but it did fall to 90% at one point...The child was on

Yep, 39% effective against actually getting the Delta variant or showing symptoms. The same study also found the Pfizer vaccine is 88% effective in preventing hospitalisation and 91% effective in

You act like this is something new...  Talk about what's going on anywhere you like as long as you leave politics out of it. There are thousands of posts on the pandemic that have managed to

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Just because this virus hasn't yet exploded in your country, it doesn't mean that it won't. It all depends on how other countries learn (or don't learn) from those countries where viral explosions have already occurred. Unfortunately, it appears that a lot of countries (including my own) haven't learned anything.

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The only government in the world that has done a good job on being transparent and proactive on the Wuhan Coronavirus is South Korea, and half of countries in the world have closed their borders to the South Koreans as a result. I seriously doubt that the threat isn't just as great in many other countries (including the Philippines), but other countries aren't performing enough tests to find the existing cases, and they aren't being forthcoming about what they do find. No other country is even attempting to trace contacts to known cases.

What the governments of most countries are doing in hanging people out to dry in the face of this virus is criminal. Governments seem to be more concerned with their economies than their people's health. In the end, these governments will sacrifice both their people and their economies by taking this route. Eventually, this virus will be everywhere, and when it gets to where you live, if you are older and have any chronic diseases, you too will be hung out to dry.

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Yesterday I found 2 very good articles with lots of good background information about COVID19.

1st is from an italian doctor who describes how the virus came over the like a tsunami. Just read it and think what those problems would mean in your health system!

2nd Article is from National Geographics and gives a very detailed info about statistics from COVID19 that are based on the chinese cases and underlying conditions that make the virus worse in case you have them!


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I’ve been very impressed with the efforts being made here to keep the public informed about the spread and processes to protect the public from the epidemic.  Frequent updates and public dissemination of data.  Also, admitting to problems and errors, quIckly and transparently.

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San Diego Laboratory Discovers Covid 19 Vaccine In 3 Hours


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I've been invested in a particular biotech for more than a year. It's a groundbreaking stock related to reducing cardiac events and I regularly read messages on iHUB regarding all the challenges the stock has been through. It's one of the more remarkable groups I've been in, with doctors, pharmacists, lawyers, professional investors, and others weighing in and arguing all the arcane points that come up. The group is also somewhat international. COVID-19 came up as a topic since the group is waiting on a court ruling regarding a challenge by generics to the company's property. Anyway... one person is in Italy, and has a medical friend there. I can't vouch for the post, other than it's just another post on a message board, but it's pretty interesting read to get a feel from folks on the ground, regardless of the politics of the virus. Here:

What does it mean? How it looks like? Like this: Daniele Macchini (Italy)

Quote:In one of the constant emails that I receive from my health department on a more than daily basis now these days, there was also a paragraph entitled "doing social responsibly", with some recommendations that can only be supported. 
After thinking for a long time if and what to write about what is happening to us, I felt that the silence was not at all responsible. Therefore, I will try to convey to people "not involved in the work" and further away from our reality, what we are experiencing in Bergamo during these pandemic days from Covid-19. 
I understand the need not to panic, but when the message of the danger of what is happening does not reach people and I still feel who cares about the recommendations and people who gather complaining that they cannot go to the gym or be able to do soccer tournaments I shudder. 
I also understand the economic damage and I am worried about that. After the epidemic, the tragedy will start again. However, apart from the fact that we are literally also devastating our NHS from an economic point of view, I allow myself to raise the importance of the health damage that is likely throughout the country and I find it nothing short of "chilling" for example that a red zone already requested by the region has not yet been established for the municipalities of Alzano Lombardo and Nembro (I would like to clarify that this is pure personal opinion). 
I myself looked with some amazement at the reorganizations of the entire hospital in the previous week, when our current enemy was still in the shadows: the wards slowly "emptied", the elective activities interrupted, the intensive therapies freed to create as many beds as possible. Containers arriving in front of the emergency room to create diversified routes and avoid any infections. All this rapid transformation brought in the corridors of the hospital an atmosphere of surreal silence and emptiness that we still did not understand, waiting for a war that was yet to begin and that many (including me) were not so sure would never come with such ferocity. 
(I open a parenthesis: all this in silence and without publicity, while several newspapers had the courage to say that private health care was not doing anything). 
I still remember my night guard a week ago passed unnecessarily without turning a blind eye, waiting for a call from the microbiology of the Sack. I was waiting for the outcome of a swab on the first suspected patient in our hospital, thinking about what consequences it would have for the clinic and us. If I think about it, my agitation for one possible case seems almost ridiculous and unjustified, now that I have seen what is happening. 
Well, the situation is now nothing short of dramatic. No other words come to mind. 
The war has literally exploded and the battles are uninterrupted day and night. 
One after the other, the unfortunate poor come to the emergency room. They have anything but the complications of a flu. Let us stop saying it is a bad flu. In these 2 years, I have learned that the people of Bergamo do not come to the emergency room at all. They did well this time too. They followed all the indications given: a week or ten days at home with a fever without going out and risking contagion, but now they cannot take it anymore. They do not breathe enough, they need oxygen. 
Drug therapies for this virus are few. The course mainly depends on our organism. We can only support it when it cannot take it anymore. It is mainly hoped that our body will eradicate the virus on its own, let us face it. Antiviral therapies are experimental on this virus and we learn its behavior day after day. Staying at home until the symptoms worsen does not change the prognosis of the disease. 
Now, however, that need for beds in all its drama has arrived. One after the other, the departments that had been emptied are filling up at an impressive rate. The display boards with the names of the patients, in different colors depending on the operating unit they belong to, are now all red and instead of the surgical operation, there is the diagnosis, which is always the same damn: bilateral interstitial pneumonia. 
Now, tell me which flu virus causes such a rapid tragedy. Because that's the difference (now I'm going down a bit in the technical field): in the classical flu, apart from infecting much less population over several months, cases can be complicated less frequently, only when the VIRUS destroying the protective barriers of the Our respiratory tract allows BACTERIA normally resident in the upper tract to invade the bronchi and lungs, causing more serious cases. Covid 19 causes a banal influence in many young people, but in many elderly people (and not only) a real SARS because it arrives directly in the alveoli of the lungs and infects them making them unable to perform their function. The resulting respiratory failure is often serious and after a few days of hospitalization, the simple oxygen that can be administered in a ward may not be enough. 
Sorry, but to me as a doctor it does not reassure you that the most serious are mainly elderly people with other pathologies. The elderly population is the most represented in our country and it is difficult to find someone who, above 65 years of age, does not take at least the tablet for pressure or diabetes. I also assure you that when you see young people who end up in intubated intensive care, pronated or worse in ECMO (a machine for the worst cases, which extracts the blood, re-oxygenates it and returns it to the body, waiting for the organism, hopefully, heal your lungs), all this tranquility for your young age passes. 
Moreover, while there are still people on social networks who pride themselves on not being afraid by ignoring the indications, protesting that their normal lifestyle habits are "temporarily" in crisis, the epidemiological disaster is taking place. 
In addition, there are no more surgeons, urologists, orthopedists; we are only doctors who suddenly become part of a single team to face this tsunami that has overwhelmed us. The cases multiply; we arrive at the rate of 15-20 hospitalizations a day all for the same reason. The results of the swabs now come one after the other: positive, positive, positive. Suddenly the emergency room is collapsing. Emergency provisions are issued: help is needed in the emergency room. A quick meeting to learn how the first aid management software works and a few minutes later they are already downstairs, next to the warriors on the war front. The screen of the PC with the reasons for the access is always the same: fever and respiratory difficulty, fever and cough, respiratory insufficiency etc ... Exams, radiology always with the same sentence: bilateral interstitial pneumonia, bilateral interstitial pneumonia, bilateral interstitial pneumonia. All have to be hospitalized. Someone already to intubate and go to intensive care. For others it is late ... 
Intensive care becomes saturated, and where intensive care ends, more are created. Each fan becomes like gold: those of the operating rooms that have now suspended their non-urgent activity become places for intensive care that did not exist before. 
I found it incredible, or at least I can speak for HUMANITAS Gavazzeni (where I work) how it was possible to put in place in such a short time a deployment and a reorganization of resources so finely designed to prepare for a disaster of this magnitude. Every reorganization of beds, wards, staff, work shifts and tasks is constantly reviewed day after day to try to give everything and even more. 
Those wards that previously looked like ghosts are now saturated, ready to try to give their best for the sick, but exhausted. The staff is exhausted. I saw fatigue on faces that did not know what it was despite the already grueling workloads they had. I have seen people still stop beyond the times they used to stop already, for overtime that was now habitual. I saw solidarity from all of us, who never failed to go to our internist colleagues to ask, "What can I do for you now?" or "leave that hospitalization alone." Doctors who move beds and transfer patients, who administer therapies instead of nurses. Nurses with tears in their eyes because we are unable to save everyone and the vital signs of several patients at the same time reveal a fate that has already been marked. 
There are no more shifts, schedules. Social life is suspended for us. 
I have been separated for a few months, and I assure you that I have always done everything possible to constantly see my son even on the days of taking the night off, without sleeping and postponing sleep until when I am without him, but for almost 2 weeks I have not voluntarily I see neither my son nor my family members for fear of infecting them and in turn infecting an elderly grandmother or relatives with other health problems. I am happy with some photos of my son that I regard between tears and a few video calls. 
So be patient too, you cannot go to the theater, museums or gym. Try to have mercy on that myriad of older people you could exterminate. It is not your fault, I know, but of those who put it in your head that you are exaggerating and even this testimony may seem just an exaggeration for those who are far from the epidemic, but please, listen to us, try to leave the house only to indispensable things. Do not go en masse to stock up in supermarkets: it is the worst thing because you concentrate and the risk of contacts with infected people who do not know they are higher. You can go there as you usually do. Maybe if you have a normal mask (even those that are used to do certain manual work) put it on. Do not look for ffp2 or ffp3. Those should serve us and we are beginning to struggle to find them. By now, we have had to optimize their use only in certain circumstances, as the WHO recently suggested in view of their almost ubiquitous impoverishment. 
Oh yes, thanks to the shortage of certain devices, I and many other colleagues are certainly exposed despite all the means of protection we have. Some of us have already become infected despite the protocols. Some infected colleagues also have infected relatives and some of their family members are already struggling between life and death. 
We are where your fears could make you stay away. Try to make sure you stay away. Tell your family members who are elderly or with other illnesses to stay indoors. Bring him the groceries please. 
We have no alternative. It is our job. In fact, what I do these days is not really the job I am used to, but I do it anyway and I will like it as long as it responds to the same principles: try to make some sick people feel better and heal, or even just alleviate the suffering and the pain to those who unfortunately cannot heal. 
On the other hand, I do not spend many words about the people who define us heroes these days and who until yesterday were ready to insult and report us. Both will return to insult and report as soon as everything is over. People forget everything quickly. 
We are not even heroes these days. It is our job. We risked something bad every day before: when we put our hands in a belly full of blood of someone we don't even know if he has HIV or hepatitis C; when we do it even if we know that he has HIV or hepatitis C; when we sting with the one with HIV and take the drugs that make us vomit from morning to night for a month. When we open with the usual anguish the results of the examinations at the various checks after an accidental puncture hoping not to be infected. We simply earn our living with something that gives us emotions. It does not matter if they are beautiful or ugly, just take them home. 
In the end, we only try to make ourselves useful for everyone. Now try to do it too though: with our actions, we influence the life and death of a few dozen people. You with yours, many more. 
Please share and share the message. We must spread the word to prevent what is happening here in Italy

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Something is strange about this. The virus has no DNA in it. How does a "DNA vaccination" combat a virus that only has RNA?

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24 minutes ago, Headshot said:

Something is strange about this. The virus has no DNA in it. How does a "DNA vaccination" combat a virus that only has RNA?



San Diego Lab’s Potential Coronavirus Vaccine Could Help Beyond Outbreak

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

image.png.a62be68c89f209a0dbaf8c2cef90c74c.pngAbove: Kate Broderick, Inovio Pharmaceuticals senior vice president, sits at a conference table at the company's Sorrento Valley location with a digital map in the background that shows the global cases of coronavirus in real time, Feb. 21, 2020.

Brewing a DNA-based vaccine smells kind of like a college bar.

The scent of stale beer that lingers inside the second-floor lab at Inovio Pharmaceuticals comes from E. coli bacteria that grows the DNA medicine many times over and is later extracted.

Inovio research associate Joseph Fader likened the whole process to harvesting crops.

"Say your favorite fruit is strawberries, right? You like strawberries but you don’t like eating the plant, but you need the plant to grow the strawberries — so the E. coli cells are the plant," Fader said.

And Inovio is trying to grow life-saving strawberries amid a raging storm.

As the deadly coronavirus known as COVID-19 is battering cities around the globe, including in the U.S., the company is racing to offer the world a life raft with its DNA-based vaccine. The process is faster, easier and doesn't use the virus at all, contrary to traditional immunizations, which typically include a weakened or inactive pathogen. But no DNA-based vaccine has received regulatory approval for broad public use. Inovio researchers hope their coronavirus anecdote breaks that barrier and, in turn, could revolutionize vaccine development.

President Donald Trump is urging companies to fast-track vaccine development and invited Inovio to a Monday meeting of the coronavirus task force at the White House.

Inovio CEO Joseph Kim touted the Pennsylvania-based biotech company's success with its vaccine for MERS, also caused by a coronavirus.

"Inovio is the leader in coronavirus vaccine development in the world," Kim said to the president, noting the MERS product is in the second phase of human testing.

At the center of Inovio's COVID-19 vaccine operation in San Diego is senior vice president of research and development Kate Broderick. The lead researcher sometimes begins workdays at 2 a.m. to coordinate with colleagues across time zones and drive the mission forward at a near-record pace.

Broderick said the firm has made progress just weeks after the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, an international public-private group based in Norway, asked the pharmaceutical company to join the coronavirus vaccine race in January.

"We have now started testing the vaccine in the lab and we are extremely encouraged by the data that we've generated thus far, and it's looking really very promising," she said.

Success in a tray or mandated animal testing, however, doesn't always mean a vaccine will prevent disease in humans. Inovio’s other vaccines have shown positive results in the first two human trials that evaluate for safety and efficacy and has two products in the third and final round of testing, when a vaccine is administered to thousands of individuals and compared to existing products. Yet no DNA-based vaccine has cleared that last hurdle and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

image.png.cfbe710c6da2dba97c232c66445606b8.pngThe exterior of the Sorrento Valley location of Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Feb. 21, 2020.

Broderick, who finds balance with morning yoga and an evening glass of wine, said Inovio's vaccines haven't been put to the third-round test yet but is confident they'll succeed. If Inovio does navigate those uncharted waters, it’ll generate a master vaccine that can be quickly modified with the DNA of the next virus that emerges.

"Just that tiny little piece of genetic information differs," Broderick said. "Every time we make progress on developing a vaccine like this, we can add that learning to the next outbreak or the next virus that we tackle."

For its Zika vaccine, which is in the second round of human testing, Inovio reached the first stage in only seven months. Broderick said the lab is applying lessons learned from that experience and is hoping to begin human testing on its coronavirus vaccine within only five months, by June.

At the White House meeting, CEO Kim told the president that could occur as early as April.

Getting there requires FDA approval. Inovio director of pre-clinical development Stephanie Ramos is helping to write and submit the thousands of required pages of results, studies and summaries.

Ramos said the process is expedited under the outbreak circumstance, so that means a lot of overtime and Indian take out, but the routine news coverage of the coronavirus impact reminds the researchers what they’re up against.

"It makes you feel good you’re doing your part to get the vaccine out there faster," Ramos said.

She's approaching this not just as a scientist — a handmade Mother’s Day gift sits on her desk.

"We do take to heart what is going into people," she said. "You know, we're not just here to say, 'Check. Yeah, did our job. Check. Yeah, we did it first.' No, that's the cherry on top."

Another company recently announced its experimentally designed vaccine for coronavirus is ready for the first stage of human trials. Inovio is still working toward that milestone but achieving successful results will be the bigger deal — not only for this virus but for the next one that scientists know is coming, but aren’t sure when or where.


A handmade Mother's Day gift sits below the computer monitor on the desk of Inovio Pharamceuticals Director of Pre-Clinical Development Stephanie Ramos as she stands in the background, Feb. 21, 2020.


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Coronavirus conference ‘cancelled due to coronavirus’

Kate Ng

A business conference focusing on coronavirus has reportedly been cancelled to avoid spreading the virus.

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) cancelled a roundtable conference which was meant to take place on Friday, alongside other conferences scheduled between 11 March and 3 April around the US, reports said.

According to Bloomberg, the CFR’s “Doing Business Under Coronavirus” conference joins a growing list of cancelled or postponed events in New York state, which holds the largest cluster of cases in the US.

The think tank’s website carried a statement reading: “There are currently no upcoming events. Please check back soon for new events.” The Independent has contacted CFR for comment.

Authorities have confirmed 173 cases of the virus in New York, with 108 of them located in New Rochelle where a one-mile (1.6 km) “containment zone” has been enforced.

Andrew Cuomo, governor of the state, announced National Guard troops would be deployed into New Rochelle to deliver food and help contain the outbreak.

He said: “It is a dramatic action, but it is the largest cluster of cases in the country. The numbers are going up unabated and we do need a public health strategy.”

Events and gatherings in nearly every imaginable sector, from sports to business to culture, have been cancelled or postponed as the US tries to contain the coronavirus outbreak which has infected more than 1,000 people and killed 29.

A major tennis tournament, the BNP Paribas Open, which was due to take place in California this week was cancelled after local health authorities declared a public health emergency in the Coachella Valley.


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47 minutes ago, Headshot said:

Something is strange about this. The virus has no DNA in it. How does a "DNA vaccination" combat a virus that only has RNA?



The Differences Between DNA and RNA



Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

Updated February 02, 2020

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, while RNA is ribonucleic acid. Although DNA and RNA both carry genetic information, there are quite a few differences between them. This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA, including a quick summary and a detailed table of the differences.

Summary of Differences Between DNA and RNA

DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, while RNA contains the sugar ribose. The only difference between ribose and deoxyribose is that ribose has one more -OH group than deoxyribose, which has -H attached to the second (2') carbon in the ring.

DNA is a double-stranded molecule, while RNA is a single-stranded molecule.

DNA is stable under alkaline conditions, while RNA is not stable.

DNA and RNA perform different functions in humans. DNA is responsible for storing and transferring genetic information, while RNA directly codes for amino acids and acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes to make proteins.

DNA and RNA base pairing is slightly different since DNA uses the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine; RNA uses adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. Uracil differs from thymine in that it lacks a methyl group on its ring.

Comparison of DNA and RNA

While both DNA and RNA are used to store genetic information, there are clear differences between them. This table summarizes the key points:

Main Differences Between DNA and RNA


NameDeoxyriboNucleic AcidRiboNucleic Acid

FunctionLong-term storage of genetic information; transmission of genetic information to make other cells and new organisms.Used to transfer the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes to make proteins. RNA is used to transmit genetic information in some organisms and may have been the molecule used to store genetic blueprints in primitive organisms.

Structural FeaturesB-form double helix. DNA is a double-stranded molecule consisting of a long chain of nucleotides.A-form helix. RNA usually is a single-strand helix consisting of shorter chains of nucleotides.

Composition of Bases and Sugarsdeoxyribose sugar
phosphate backbone
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine basesribose sugar
phosphate backbone
adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil bases

PropagationDNA is self-replicating.RNA is synthesized from DNA on an as-needed basis.

Base PairingAT (adenine-thymine)
GC (guanine-cytosine)AU (adenine-uracil)
GC (guanine-cytosine)

ReactivityThe C-H bonds in DNA make it fairly stable, plus the body destroys enzymes that would attack DNA. The small grooves in the helix also serve as protection, providing minimal space for enzymes to attach.The O-H bond in the ribose of RNA makes the molecule more reactive, compared with DNA. RNA is not stable under alkaline conditions, plus the large grooves in the molecule make it susceptible to enzyme attack. RNA is constantly produced, used, degraded, and recycled.

Ultraviolet DamageDNA is susceptible to UV damage.Compared with DNA, RNA is relatively resistant to UV damage.

Which Came First?

There is some evidence DNA may have occurred first, but most scientists believe RNA evolved before DNA.1 RNA has a simpler structure and is needed in order for DNA to function. Also, RNA is found in prokaryotes, which are believed to precede eukaryotes. RNA on its own can act as a catalyst for certain chemical reactions.

The real question is why DNA evolved if RNA existed. The most likely answer for this is that having a double-stranded molecule helps protect the genetic code from damage. If one strand is broken, the other strand can serve as a template for repair. Proteins surrounding DNA also confer additional protection against enzymatic attack.

Unusual DNA and RNA

While the most common form of DNA is a double helix. there is evidence for rare cases of branched DNA, quadruplex DNA, and molecules made from triple strands.2 Scientists have found DNA in which arsenic substitutes for phosphorus.3

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sometimes occurs. It is similar to DNA, except thymine is replaced by uracil. This type of RNA is found in some viruses. When these viruses infect eukaryotic cells, the dsRNA can interfere with normal RNA function and stimulate an interferon response. Circular single-strand RNA (circRNA) has been found in both animals and plants.4 At present, the function of this type of RNA is unknown.


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