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Coronavirus virus can spread via human transmission


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Kahuna
8 hours ago, Headshot said:

 

Bill..this is over an hour and a half long. 

You bring me more like this and I'l have to start selling popcorn and drinks and making intermissions so people can wee.   :shocked:

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Yeah. I know its long, but it is all science.  :as-if:

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Kahuna
4 minutes ago, Headshot said:

Yeah. I know its long, but it is all science.  :as-if:

I'm going to have to take your word on that since I don't have an hour and a half to peruse it .  :good:

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Cgu
Posted (edited)

Roche Coronavirus Antibody Test has proven 100% accurate at detecting Covid-19 antibodies in the blood 

 

This will help, as other test like Abotts, are still erroneous.

(for people with subscription)

https://www.wsj.com/articles/roche-coronavirus-antibody-test-wins-fda-approval-for-emergency-use-11588505019

(for people without subscription)

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/03/pharma-giant-roche-gets-us-go-ahead-for-covid-19-antibody-test

Edited by Cgu
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Kahuna

https://www.newsweek.com/antibody-that-blocks-coronavirus-infecting-cells-discovered-scientists-1501742

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ANTIBODY THAT BLOCKS CORONAVIRUS FROM INFECTING CELLS DISCOVERED BY SCIENTISTS

BY KASHMIRA GANDER ON 5/4/20 AT 12:42 PM EDT

 

Scientists have identified an antibody in a lab that they say can prevent the novel coronavirus from infecting cells. The team hopes the antibody could be used to create treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus.

Since the coronavirus began infecting people in the central Chinese city of Wuhan late last year, more than 3.5 million people have been diagnosed with COVID-19, over a million have recovered and almost 248,000 have died, according to Johns Hopkins University.

The team, whose research was published in the journal Nature Communications, have been exploring whether what are known as monoclonal antibodies could help patients with COVID-19. Currently there is no vaccine or specific treatment for the disease. Monoclonal antibodies are a type of protein created in a lab which can bind to a specific substance in the body. These types of antibodies mimic how the immune system responds to a threat, and are used to treat some forms of cancer.

An antibody named 47D11 was found to bind to the spike protein which the novel coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2, uses to enter the body, and block it in a way that neutralizes the pathogen.

To carry out their study, the researchers used mice whose biology was tweaked to create antibodies similar to those found in humans. They injected the animals with spike proteins that the viruses which cause SARS, MERS, and some types of common cold use to invade cells. These viruses are members of the large coronavirus family of pathogens which also includes SARS-CoV-2, the bug which causes COVID-19. The mice produced 51 antibodies capable of neutralizing the spike protein of the injected coronaviruses. This stage of the research was done before SARS-CoV-2 first came to the attention of health officials in late 2019.

The team later watched to see if the antibodies would neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in lab samples, and found 47D11 did.

Co-author Berend-Jan Bosch, associate professor of the Utrecht University Infection and Immunity programme, explained in a statement that the research builds on work his team had done previously on antibodies which can target SARS-CoV, the virus which causes SARS.

"Using this collection of SARS-CoV antibodies, we identified an antibody that also neutralizes infection of SARS-CoV-2 [the COVID-19 virus] in cultured cells. Such a neutralizing antibody has potential to alter the course of infection in the infected host, support virus clearance or protect an uninfected individual that is exposed to the virus."

Co-author Frank Grosveld, Academy Professor of Cell Biology at the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, said: "This discovery provides a strong foundation for additional research to characterize this antibody and begin development as a potential COVID-19 treatment."

Experts not involved in the research welcomed the findings, but also pointed out the study's limitations.

Tony Carr, professor of molecular genetics in the Genome Damage and Stability Centre (GDSC) at the University of Sussex, said in a statement: "The block to infectivity is entirely based on cell culture work, but the previous literature supports the proposal that this reagent should be explored further as a potential treatment."

Penny Ward, visiting professor in Pharmaceutical Medicine at King's College London, said the antibody has the potential to be used to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, "however without studying this in an animal model, it is not clear which of these approaches might be most efficient."

The findings would have been more robust if the team were able to show the antibody could prevent and treat COVID19 in animals, she said.

"It is not possible to conclude that the product will be effective in vivo in humans," said Ward.

Polly Roy, professor of virology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said the data the team created is "very good," and highlighted they are well-known for their work on coronaviruses.

Gary McLean, professor in Molecular Immunology at London Metropolitan University, said: "Because it is not done in people and the antibody is not even found in people as far as we know there are limitations. However it is a nicely done study that could provide a potential biotherapeutic that could be used to treat COVID-19.

The research complements separate projects looking at whether a century-old technique known as convalescent plasma therapy, where the blood from a person who has recovered from COVID-19 is inserted into a current patient in the hope it will help them beat the disease.

Professor Babak Javid, principal investigator at Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, and consultant in infectious diseases at Cambridge University Hospitals in the U.K., commented: "This is a very interesting study. One of the most widely touted experimental (though not yet proven) treatments for COVID is the use of convalescent plasma."

He said: "However, use of convalescent plasma is difficult to scale and make widely available as a treatment and has some potential safety concerns since it is a blood product. Therefore there has been intense scientific interest in identifying individual antibodies that can also neutralize SARS-CoV2. This is because we are able to manufacture large quantities of individual antibodies (known as monoclonal antibodies or mAbs) at scale as a pharmaceutical treatment for COVID. Monoclonal antibodies also don't have the safety concerns of administering blood products."

Simon Clarke, associate professor in Cellular Microbiology at the University of Reading, U.K., said in a statement: "Antibodies like this can be made in the lab instead of purified from people's blood and could conceivably be used as a treatment for disease, but this has not yet been demonstrated.

"While it's an interesting development, injecting people with antibodies is not without risk and it would need to undergo proper clinical trials."

 

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Cgu
Posted (edited)
  1. I do not know if this was posted before, but worlometer has new links to predictions (per country and sometimes even lower..). I do not know how they predict and what algo they are using:

 

https://covid19.healthdata.org/united-states-of-america

 

Additionally they have the restrictions on top of the page - nicely done.

 

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Kahuna
Posted (edited)
2 hours ago, Cgu said:
  1. I do not know if this was posted before, but worlometer has new links to predictions (per country and sometimes even lower..). I do not know how they predict and what algo they are using:

 

https://covid19.healthdata.org/united-states-of-america

 

So it's a best guess app predicting how much death they think may happen?   :scratch_head:

No thank you...already way too much speculation going on already..:hi:

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Kahuna

https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/05/the-coronavirus-mutated-and-appears-to-be-more-contagious-now-new-study-finds.html

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The coronavirus has mutated and appears to be more contagious now, new study finds

PUBLISHED TUE, MAY 5 20201:16 PM EDT UPDATED WED, MAY 6 202012:37 PM EDT

KEY POINTS

The coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan, China, has mutated and the new, dominant strain spreading across the U.S. appears to be even more contagious, according to a new study.

The new strain began spreading in Europe in early February before migrating to other parts of the world, including the U.S., becoming the dominant form of the virus across the globe by the end of March, researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory wrote. 

If the coronavirus doesn’t subside in the summer like the seasonal flu, it could mutate further and potentially limit the effectiveness of the coronavirus vaccines being developed by scientists, the researchers warned.

The coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan, China, over four months ago has since mutated and the new, dominant strain spreading across the U.S. appears to be even more contagious, according to a new study.

The new strain began spreading in Europe in early February before migrating to other parts of the world, including the United States and Canada, becoming the dominant form of the virus across the globe by the end of March, researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory wrote in a 33-page report published Thursday on BioRxiv. 

If the coronavirus doesn’t subside in the summer like the seasonal flu, it could mutate further and potentially limit the effectiveness of the coronavirus vaccines being developed by scientists around the world, the researchers warned. Some vaccine researchers have been using the virus’s genetic sequences isolated by health authorities early in the outbreak.

“This is hard news,” Bette Korber, a computational biologist at Los Alamos and lead author of the study, the Los Angeles Times said she wrote on her Facebook page.

“But please don’t only be disheartened by it,” she continued. “Our team at LANL was able to document this mutation and its impact on transmission only because of a massive global effort of clinical people and experimental groups, who make new sequences of the virus (SARS-CoV-2) in their local communities available as quickly as they possibly can.”

The study has yet to be peer-reviewed, but the researchers noted that news of the mutation was of “urgent concern” considering the more than 100 vaccines in the process of being developed to prevent Covid-19.

In early March, researchers in China said they found that two different types of the coronavirus could be causing infections worldwide.

In a study published on March 3, scientists at Peking University’s School of Life Sciences and the Institut Pasteur of Shanghai found that a more aggressive type of the new coronavirus had accounted for roughly 70% of analyzed strains, while 30% had been linked to a less aggressive type. The more aggressive and deadly strain was found to be prevalent in the early stages of the outbreak in Wuhan — the Chinese city where the virus first emerged.

The Los Alamos researchers, with the help of scientists at Duke University and the University of Sheffield in England, were able to analyze thousands of coronavirus sequences collected by the Global Initiative for Sharing All Influenza, an organization that promotes the rapid sharing of data from all influenza viruses and the coronavirus.

To date, the researchers have identified 14 mutations. 

The mutation impacts the spike protein, a multifunctional mechanism that allows the virus to enter the host.

The research was supported by funding from the Medical Research Council, the National Institute of Health Research and Genome Research Limited.

 

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Kahuna

https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/1271180/Coronavirus-breakthrough-cure-antibodies-belgian-scientists-llama-blood-tests

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Coronavirus breakthrough: Scientists reveal llama blood contains useful antibodies

BELGIAN scientists have discovered that antibodies found within llama blood could help to neutralise the coronavirus.

According to the research, the small size of the antibodies allows them to target microscopic viruses more effectively.

This is known as nanobody technology.

Such antibodies were first used in HIV research back in the 1980s.

These groundreaking properties of antibodies found in the blood of camelids (camels, llamas and alpacas) were first uncovered by a Brussels University in 1989.

A report seen by the Sunday Times said "The feasibility of using [llama antibodies]... merits further investigation."

Camelids aren't the only animals proving useful in finding a treatment for the coronavirus.

Another South Korean study, reported in the Cell Host and Microbe journal, found ferrets infected with Covid-19 responded similarly to humans.

The study claims this could be "a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of [antiviral treatments] and preventive vaccines."

Researchers in Hong Kong have also found Syrian hamsters had a reaction to Covid-19 which "closely [resembles] the manifestations of upper and lower respiratory tract infection in humans."

The study, published in Science magazine, found eight hamsters "lost weight, became lethargic, and developed ruffled fur, a hunched posture, and rapid breathing" after being infected with the virus.

Oxford University has also been carrying out animal trials of it's own vaccine.

Tests of the experimental coronavirus vaccine have also showed promising results on animals

The new vaccine comes from chimpanzees, who are injected with the coronavirus to produce antibodies that can be used to bolster the immune system of humans.

The team are confident they can get jab for the incurable disease rolled out by autumn.

However, public health officials say it will still take a year to 18 months to fully validate any potential vaccine – despite the beginning of human trials.

Sarah Gilbert, a professor of vaccinology, admitted that this time frame was "highly ambitious" many things could get in the way of that target.

Oxford's vaccine programme has already recruited 510 people, aged between 18 and 55, to take part in the first trial.

Speaking to the BBC World Service Professor Adrian Hill, who will lead the research, said: "We have tested the vaccine in several different animal species.

"We have taken a fairly cautious approach, but a rapid one to assess the vaccine that we are developing."

The team are hoping to raise more funds to increase the amount they are able to produce worldwide.

He said: "We're a university, we have a very small in house manufacturing facility that can do dozens of doses.

"That's not good enough to supply the world, obviously.

"We are working with manufacturing organisations and paying them to start the process now."

"So by the time July, August, September comes - whenever this is looking good - we should have the vaccine to start deploying under emergency use recommendations."

 

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I can't copy and paste this, but the Eastern Virginia Medical School has put out protocols for preventing and treating the coronavirus. It includes protocols for what individuals can do as preventive measures, what they can do to fight the infection if they are infected but do not yet need hospitalization, and what doctors and hospitals should be doing if an individual does need hospitalization. All three protocols are a departure from previous practices (some of which have failed miserably).

This is well worth a read for anybody who is concerned with their own health or the health of loved ones.

https://www.evms.edu/media/evms_public/departments/internal_medicine/EVMS_Critical_Care_COVID-19_Protocol.pdf

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