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Pre-Colonial Philippine History and Society


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#1 Javen

Javen
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Posted 10 November 2008 - 08:02 PM

some interesting information

from Spain's boxers codex(circa 1595)...a illustration of the depiction of a tagalog couple from Maharlika nobility
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Philippine History
25,000 - 30,000 BC: Beyer's Migration Theory. The Aeta (Negrito), a short dark skinned, kinky-haired Pygmy, hailing from Central Asia, traveled to the Philippines by foot by way of the land bridges. The Aeto is purported to have brought to the archipelago skills in the use of the blow-gun and the bow and arrow.

22,000 BC: The approximated date of the remnats of the Tabon Cave Dweller which have been associated with te species knows as the Austroloid.

3,500 - 5,000 BC: Beyer's Migration Theory - The next two groups or waves of people arriving in the Philippines are Indonesian A and B. They are said to have introduced to the islands the home-edged weapons of the stone dager, stone-tipped spear and hand-held shield.

500 BC: Jocano's Theory - During the end of the Incipient Period, about the turn of the Millenium AD, Filipino contacts with the outside world became intensified, the major impetus being a relatively efficient maritime transportation.

200 BC: Beyer's Migration Theory - Three succesive waves of Malays arriving in the Philippines. The first Malays brought metal dagers, swords and spears.

100 BC: Beyer's Migration Theory - The second migratory wave was responsible for introducingthe ancient Visayan Baybayin Alphabet to the Philippines.

3 AD: Origin of the kris; believed to have beencrafted as a Hindu religous weapon with mystical powers.

200 AD: Francisco suggest that Baybayin Alphabet (aka Alibata) was brought to the archipelago by the Hindu Tamil by way of Malaysia around this time.

618 AD: Philippine - chinese contacts intesified during the Tang dynasty and peaked aroud the 14th to 15th centuries. It is believed that the Chinese introduced their fighting arts of kun-tao to the Royal Families as a gesture of good faith to trade relations. The practice of kun-tao has been maintained among the Samal Tausug, where it is known as langka-kuntaw.

977 AD: The Philippine island of Mindoro (known as Mai in Chinese) was known as a place of hospitality to Chinese traders and merchants.

1293 AD: The Srivijaya was succeeded by the Majapahit empire. During this time,Philipine-Indonesian relations intensified, and much of the so-called Indian cultural influences reached the Philippines.

1270 AD: Early evidence of an Islamic presence is furnished by a tombstone of a trader msissionary, in Indanan, Sulu. It bears the inscription "710 AH", using the Islamic dating system,which, in relation to the Christian calendar, approximates to this date.

1250 AD: Beyer's Migration Theory - The third wave of Malays believed to have been headed by the ten Bornean Datus whosettled in Panay. Legends of the 13th Century, as recorded in Maragtas (a written history of Panay) maintain that ten Dyak Datus (Muslim Chieftains) fled their homeland of Borneo - running from the cruel Sultan Makatunaw who had seized their property and ravaged their wives - sttled on Panay Island. The ten datus established the Confederation of Madyaas with Datu Sumakwel as its ruler. Sumakwel ruled this confederation through his Penal Code which was outlined in his book Maragtas. Known as the Maragtas Code, these are the oldest body of Laws believed to have existed in the Philippines.

1450 AD: Through the efforts of the trader, Sharif ul-Hasim Abubakr, Islam took deep roots in Sulu. Abubakr settled in Bwansa where he lived with its king, Rajah Baginda. Here Abubakr converted Baginda to Islam, married his daughter Paramisuli, and established Islam as the official religin of Sulu.




[edit] Thalassocracies and international trade (400AD - 1521)
Further information: Ancient Philippine civilization

[edit] The emergence of Barangay city-states and trade (500AD-800AD)

Since at least the 3rd century, the indigenous peoples were in contact with other Southeast Asian and East Asian nations.

Fragmented ethnic groups established numerous city-states formed by the assimilation of several small political units known as barangay each headed by a Datu or headman (still in use among non-Hispanic Filipino ethnic groups) and answerable to a king, titled Rajah. Even scattered barangays, through the development of inter-island and international trade, became more culturally homogeneous by the 4th century. Many of the barangay were, to varying extents, under the de-jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Sri Vijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Brunei, Melaka empires, although de-facto had established their own independent system of rule. Trading links with Sumatra, Borneo, Thailand, Java, China, India, Arabia, Japan and the Ryukyu Kingdom flourished during this era. A thalassocracy had thus emerged based on international trade.

Each barangay consisted of about 100 families. Some barangays were big, such as Zubu (Cebu), Butuan, Maktan (Mactan), Bigan (Vigan), and Selurong (Manila). Each of these big barangays had a population of more than 2,000.

In the earliest times, the items which were prized by the peoples included jars, which were a symbol of wealth throughout South Asia, and later metal, salt and tobacco. In exchange, the peoples would trade feathers, rhino horn, hornbill beaks, beeswax, birds nests, resin, rattan.2

In the period between the 7th century to the beginning of the 1400s, numerous prosperous centers of trade had emerged, including the Kingdom of Namayan which flourished alongside Manila Bay,[11], Cebu, Butuan, the Kingdom of Sanfotsi situated in Pangasinan, the Kingdoms of Zabag and Wak-Wak situated in Pampanga[12] and Aparri (which specialized in trade with Japan and the Kingdom of Ryukyu in Okinawa).

The growth of Literature (900AD - 1380)
With the growth of a thalassocratic civilization, came the growth of literature. The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is from 900 AD (Saka Era year 822) is considered to be the end of prehistory as far as documents are concerned. It was found in the Laguna de Bay of Manila. In 1989, the National Museum acquired it. The inscription forgives the descendants of Namwaran from a debt of 926.4 grams of gold, and is granted by the chief of Tondo (an area in Manila) and the authorities of Paila, Binwangan and Pulilan, which are all locations in Luzon. The words are a mixture of Sanskrit, Old Malay, Old Javanese and Old Tagalog. The subject matter proves the highly developed society that existed in the Philippines prior to the Spanish colonization, as well as refuting earlier claims of the Philippines being a cultural isolate in Asia; the references to the Chief of Medan in Indonesia claim the cultural and trade links with various other affiliated empires and territories in other parts of the Malay Archipelago. (See Nusantara).


Starting the 14th century, some of the independent city-states or barangays of the northern Philippines became tributaries of the Ming Dynasty of China.


[edit] Caste System
By the 9th century, a highly developed society had already established several castes with set professions: The Datu or ruling class, the Maharlika or noblemen, Timawa the freemen, and the dependent class which is divided into two, the Aliping Namamahay (Slave) and Aliping Saguiguilid (Serfs).


[edit] The emergence of Baybayin script from Classical Kawi (1200 onwards)
One example of pre-Spanish Philippine script on a burial jar, derived from Brahmi survives, as most of the writing was done on perishable bamboo or leaves; an earthenware burial jar dated 1200s or 1300s with script was found in Batangas. This script is called in Tagalog Baybayin or Alibata.

[edit] The growth of Islamic Sultanates (1380 - 1521)
In 1380, Makhdum Karim, the first Islamic missionary to the Philippines brought Islam to the Archipelago. Subsequent visits of Arab, Malay and Javanese missionaries helped strengthen the Islamic faith of the Filipinos, most of whom (except for those in the south) would later become Christian under the Spanish colonization. The Sultanate of Sulu, the largest Islamic Kingdom of South East Asia and the Malay Archipelago, encompassed parts of Malaysia and the Philippines. The royal house of the Sultanate claim descent from the Prophet Muhammad.

Around 1405, the year that the war over succession ended in the Majapahit Empire, Sufi traders introduced Islam into the Hindu-Malayan empires and for about the next century the southern half of Luzon and the islands south of it were subject to the various Muslim sultanates of Borneo. During this period, the Japanese established a trading post at Aparri and maintained a loose sway over northern Luzon.


Edited by Javen, 10 November 2008 - 08:06 PM.




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